Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Whole Life Cycle Costing Application Barriers Construction Essay

Whole Life Cycle Costing Application Barriers Construction Essay Ellingham and Fawcett (2006, p. 18) indicate that the net present value method for evaluating an investment cashflow was first developed about 50 years ago and is widely used in many spheres. In property and construction projects it has acquired a special name: whole-life costing. In fact, whole-life costing is simply the application of net present value analysis to construction projects. Most people will confused about the term of life-cycle costing, whole life costing, and whole life-cycle costing. As stated in Boussabaine and Kirkham study (2004, p. 4), prior to the 1970s, investment decisions made by most clients, developers and professionals was solely on the basis of capital cost. It appear a thought that spending more in capital cost will realize substantial cost savings in long term compared with a cheaper alternative, which we known as terotechnology. This concept was largely ignored because the lack of available data and collection mechanisms, and it shown that investor had no interest in the subsequent operational cost of the building. In the early 1970s, the term cost-in-use appear in the industry. It was recognized the concept of cost in use could apply to building and critical structures as to calculate the expenditure related to the operation of an asset. However, it also failed to consider the necessity for accurate future cost forecasting. It required some kind of technology to facilitate this problem (Boussabaine and Kirkham, 2004, p. 5). Until the mid to late 1970s, life-cycle costing emerged as a solution to this problem. It fostered a wide-ranging approach to cost appraisal, encompassing all perceivable cost from construction through to eventual disposal the whole life. By using a variety of forecasting techniques, the analyst was able to demonstrate how increase capital cost could be offset by long-term cost savings (Boussabaine and Kirkham, 2004, p. 5). As stated by Ashworth (1989), LCC is clearly a technique, which (at least in theory) has a potential for the correct financial evaluation of construction works. In should be noted that the concepts of LCC are not new. The principles are based upon economic theories, which have been used in investment appraisal in many areas of industrial and commercial activity.White and Ostwald (Korpi and Ala-Risku, 2008, p.241) show that LCC was originally designed for procurement purposes in the US Department of Defence and Woodward (Korpi and Ala-Risku, 2008, p.241) indicates that LCC is used most commonly in the military sector as well as in the construction industry. Towards the late 1990s, the concept of whole life costing and whole life-cycle costing emerged. The terms whole life costing and whole life-cycle costing are interchangeable (Boussabaine and Kirkham, 2004, p. 6). Whole life-cycle costing is a relatively new concept to the construction industry. It is essence an evolution of life-cycle costing techniques that are commonly used in many areas of procurement (Boussabaine and Kirkham, 2004, p. 3). Theoretically speaking, there is no different between LCC, WLC and WLCC. Schade (2007, p. 2), in reporting Flanagan and Jewell study, emphasizes that it is just a change of term form cost in use to life cycle costing and further to whole life cycle costing. Problem Statement According to Boussabaine and Kirkham (2004, p. xi), the construction industry has recently experienced a paradigmatic shift in its approach to product deliver and the achievement of customer satisfaction. Where previously the design and construction teams placed a heavy emphasis on delivering buildings at the lowest capital cost, a greater awareness and desire to consider cost over the whole life of the building have prevailed. Clients now want buildings that demonstrate value for money over the long term, and are not interested simply in the design solution which is the least expensive. These changes have lead to and highlighted the important of whole life-cycle costing approaches to the design, construction and operation of buildings. Schade (2007) claims that, production cost is the main cost factor in construction and is often set to the minimum in commonly, which does not necessarily improve the lifetime performance of buildings. Therefore, it is important to show the construction client in the early design phase the relationship between design choices and the resulting lifetime cost. Boussabaine and Kirkham (2004, p. ix) also note that the award of public construction contracts based on simply the lowest capital cost bid is no longer recognized as good practice; best value must be taken into account and thereby WLCC should be fully appraised as part of the decision making process. The research of Swaffield and McDonald (2007, p. 132) identify that contractors quantity surveyors generally did consider LCC when procuring new products/elements for Private Finance Initiative projects, but in certain circumstances, such as during exceptionally busy times or when working within tight construction budgets, LCC were not considered and procurement decisions for some product/elements were made on the basis of lowest capital cost. As Byron A. Ellis (2007, p.1) said, Designers, engineers and constructors are under pressure from owners to minimize total project cost. Unfortunately, many owners do not understand the concept of total project cost. As a result, they seek to minimize acquisition (first) cost. Economists Alchian and Allen (Byron, 2007, p.1) argue that the term cost should never be used by itself; they noted that it should always be identified with total, average, or marginal. According to Fischer et al (Tah and Aouad, 2007), although the significance of LCC has been recognized as early as 1980s, the current implementation has not been very satisfied due to two major barriers: first barrier is the historical data of building operation and maintenance. Second barrier is the complexity of the procedures and algorithms of calculating the LCC. For example, a building concern thousands of elements and construction method and maintenance activities. A simple change in the building material might take long hours of recalculations, it is therefore difficult to assist users to manipulate the large design and LCC analysis. However, even the idea of WLCC analysis is to help the owner to examine a economically alternative, there will always have the possibility of misleading the decision making by the error result of WLCC due to lack of data or unpredictable changes. There have no such as 100% accuracy for WLCC analysis because the limitation of forecast ability of human being are impossible to forecast everything that could be happen in future. This paper addresses the problems above by providing a detail discussion of WLCC for assisting and simplifying the application of the technique based on the WLCC in construction industry. At the same time reveal the popularity of application of WLCC in Malaysian construction industry. Aim To identified the barriers of applying whole life-cycle costing and investigate the popularity of implementation of whole life-cycle costing in Malaysian construction industry Objectives To review the important of usage of whole life-cycle costing in construction industry. To identify the barriers of application of whole-life cycle costing in construction industry. To analyse the factors affecting the accuracy of whole-life cycle costing. To investigate the popularity of application of whole-life cycle costing in Malaysian construction industry. Scope of Study The concept of Whole life-cycle costing (WLCC) can be use as many sector, to narrow the scope of study, the study will only be focus on the construction industries. Besides that, case study would not conduct to the project for the calculation of WLCC because it will be extremely difficult to obtain the large quantity of information across the long term of a building life cycle and data such as the project operation and maintenance cost, replacement cost, disposal cost could be confidential to its owners. Thus, to manually collect this data has to be very costly and time consuming and the missing of any result above will cause inaccurate of result. This study will focus on reviewing the important of application of WLCC into construction industry. The first issue to be study in deep is the discussion on the principles, advantages and purposes of WLCC analysis. The second issue is to identify the error and the difficulties of applying WLCC due to lack of necessary information and unpred ictable changes. The third issue is to do a research on the understanding of WLCC among owners and their frequency of applying WLCC. Research Methodology The methodology should be targeted at a consistent whole life-cycle costing (WLCC) approach and calculations and should not be aimed at reducing costs but at making more informed and consistent economic, financial and environmental decisions. The study was conducting in four stages. The first phase is the literature review. Second phase will be interview pilot study to the issue. Third phase will be constructing questionnaires. The last phase is to writing the research report. First stage: The literature review started with the important of application of WLCC and required data for a WLCC analysis. Searching of article about WLCC and the searching key words would be whole life-cycle costing, whole cycle costing and life-cycle costing. And the information of search will be limited into construction industry to filtered unnecessary information. The main sources for the literature research were databases, such as Emerald, web of science, Google and library of college Tunku Abdul Rahman. Second stage: Data collection will take form of a structured postal questionnaire. However an initial pilot study may be conducted to test the validity of the questionnaire through interviews with relevant parties. Third stage: Questionnaires will be conduct and send to respondent. The main ideas of the questionnaires are to test the owners of understanding about WLCC, and also research on the preferable of low initial cost or low WLCC when owner make decision of choosing alternatives. The questionnaire should be highlighted more prominently, to make it easier for respondents to participate in the final questionnaire survey. Last stage: This stage involves writing up the content of the dissertation and should cover the chapters proposed in the following section. The result of interview and questionnaires will be analysis and conclude. Example of WLCC analysis will provide by searching through media resources and calculate by myself with simple and reality assumption based on the WLCC principles.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Article Review of Health Disparities Research

Article Review of Health Disparities Research ARTICLE ONE (1) REVIEW Purpose This paper is a personal subjective review of the article Perspective: Challenges to Using a Business Case for Addressing Health Disparities,[1] further referenced herein as the literature. Definition Health disparity is defined as the difference in health among different populations[2] Discussion In our textbook, McKenzie and Pinger describe differential gaps between individuals as the cause for health disparities. To expand on this, they write[3]: recognized that some individuals lead longer and healthier lives than others, and that often these differences are closely associated with social characteristics such as race, ethnicity, gender, location, and socioeconomic status. These gaps between groups have been referred to as health disparities Health Disparity Problem Whereas our textbook briefly discusses health disparity, it doesnt delve into causes, nor how long it has existed. However, the how long answer can be found in a paper by Cindy Lawler in which she writes that the problem was recognized As early as 1899, W.E.B Dubois (1899) observed the existence of Racial and ethnic Health Disparities (REHDs), and through his social study of Blacks in Philadelphia he interpreted statistical data about their health and drew several conclusions that are similar to today. She also touched upon Dubois working with flawed health data collection in Philadelphia that sacrificed the accuracy of statistical analysis.[4] 80 plus studies, conducted between 1984 and 2004[5], have repeatedly stated similar, if not the same issues and viewpoint all point to the health disparity issues in the United States, but not enough data to identify a fix for the causation(s). So, if this is an age-old problem, why are we still facing this systemic problem after a full century of recommendations have been made? I believe the authors attempted to address this by writing the literature; but, it is my belief, they fell short as the literature only touches the tip of the ice berg. Challenges As written, the literature appears to be solely focused on the many challenges to using a business case for health care organizations. The common challenges that were identified included: lag-time in ROI, and disconnect between investor and the realized beneficiary. In discussing ways to tackle the problem, the literature laid out a litany of challenges faced by health care entities through use of a broad view of both business and social cases. Throughout, it outlined what businesses and health care entities must do to achieve a better ROI, while trying to attain equity, with the ultimate goal of achieving a reduction in health care disparity. The literature also points out that a great many health organizations remain reluctant to help combat the disparity problem. Their reasoning is based on concern for their bottom linethey are unsure about whether they may see a positive ROI return, or not. And, this is not without merit, especially since there is typically a lag between initiation and seeing the ROI. To emphasis this point the authors state it doesnt take much to begin the process. a combination of business and quality improvement principles may still be able to guide health care organizations seeking to reduce disparities. As a starting juncture, they suggest use of Pareto charts and application of the 80-20 rule. In doing so, stakeholders could initiate a process to re-focus their efforts, thus allowing them the ability to turn their energies toward redirecting threatened capital items, such as funds, manpower, and equipment more effectively. To prove their point, the authors referred to an 80/20 rule study which identified a disparity within an unidentified health care setting specifically, care afforded to African Americans. The study found that approximately 80 percent of African Americans were cared for by 20 percent of physicians, in an under-resourced setting, thus subjecting the group to a lessor form of quality care.[6] The literature goes on to identify another avenue to further increase effort effectiveness, and reap further rewards in doing so, and that is though collaboration with other interested parties within the community. By doing so, they hopefully will begin the process of reducing the disparities, one small step at a time. Who is at Risk? Health disparities commonly affect minority, low-income, and rural-based populations. One reason for this, in part, is due to location. Regardless of the setting, in town, low income housing projects, or rural environment, many may have little to no access to a quality care facility, or any type care facility, or provider at all. This forces these groups to travel greater distances, and in tight economic times, such as we are in today, these groups many not be able to afford the travel costs. This creates a socio-economic Access to Care disparity, as well as an inequity issue. Of course, many races and ethnicities are affected by these factors, and the literature explains that the authors believe this is rooted in racial segregation. Conclusion Individual health is the culmination of many factors. However, the most important factors are the social, economic, and environmental conditions in which we are born, live, work, study, and play. Engaging the social elements of health is a critical component of any comprehensive health equality strategy. Successful engagement could ultimately lead to reduced healthcare costs, and improvement in everyones overall health outlook. From a business standpoint, health care entities, stakeholders, and investors need to identify and implement the correct business model, ensure proper policies and procedures in place, and have buy in from everyone (community, workers, senior C levels, and ultimately clients) before they can begin to realize a faster, positive ROI. Furthermore, health care entities and business stake holders, in cooperation with community leaders and governmental agencies (regardless of level), need to realize there is a critical need to identify and improve community health environments and health policies. This can only be achieved though cooperative efforts by all; and, by supporting programs and policies that address the myriad of social and economic determinants of health. In doing so, only then can we ensure the root causes of health disparities, and the associated inequities, are adequately, and effectively addressed and eliminated. [1] Lurie, N., Somers, S. A., Fremont, A., et al., 2008 [2] McKenzie, James F., Pinger, Robert R. 2015. pg. 25, sidebar [3] McKenzie, James F., Pinger, Robert R. 2015, pg. 25, para 5 [4] Lawler, C. (2011), Introduction, pg. 15 [5] Lawler, C. (2011), Introduction, pg. 15, para. 3. [6] Lurie, N., Somers, S. A., Fremont, A., et al., 2008, para 12.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Creating an Effective Group Therapy Environment for Adults Essay

Group therapy is an important method that is commonly used by psychiatric professionals in the treatment of many types of mental illnesses. They consist of three or more people and are targeted at promoting psychological development and change. There are three different types of groups. The task group works by using tasks, such as activities and techniques, designed to help clients work toward desired goals. In addition, midrange groups work by allowing clients to share their thoughts and feelings with others who have learned to cope with similar problems over a longer period of time. Lastly, process groups work by allowing clients to work on their communicating patterns, skills and methods (Fortinash & Holoday Worrett, 2008). Task groups consist of activity therapies, which include occupational, psychodrama, music, dance, and art. These activities are used to allow clients to safely express themselves in a positive and constructive manner. They also promote social skills, and are led by occupational and art therapists (Montgomery, 2002). Midrange groups include educational, problem-solving and support groups. They include anger management, AA (Alcoholics Anonymous), NA (Narcotics Anonymous), and cognitive-behavioral groups. These groups allow clients to surround themselves with others, who are dealing with similar issues and are supportive of one another. This prevents the client a sense of loneliness when dealing with their struggles and allows them to openly express themselves. Another type of midrange group called psychoeducational, works by allowing newly diagnosed clients to gain knowledge and effective coping skills. These skills are obtained by working with others who have prior knowledge of similar issues or experi... ...Leadership, Concepts, and Techniques. Web. 20 March 2015 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64211/ Fortinash, K.M. & Holoday Worrett, P.A. (2008). Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing (4th edition). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby. Leszcz, M. & Kobos, J.C. (2007). PRACTICE GUIDELINES FOR GROUP. Web. 20 March 2015 http://www.agpa.org/guidelines/AGPA%20Practice%20Guidelines%202007-PDF.pdf Montgomery, C. (2002). Role of dynamic group therapy in psychiatry. Web. 20 March 2015 http://apt.rcpsych.org/content/8/1/34.full.pdf+html Toseland, R.W. & Rivas, R.F. (2005). AN INTRODUCTION TO GROUP WORK PRACTICE, (5th edition). Web. 20 March 2015 http://vig.pearsonptr.com:8081/samplechapter/0205376061.pdf Wise, J.E. (2009). Book essays and reviews. Psychodynamic group psychotherapy, fourth edition. Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes, 72(3), 299-302.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Game Over :: essays research papers

Game Over As I stood at the three point line, the ball seemed to be in slow motion. Screams from the crowd came as the ball dropped through the net. Not only did this shot go in but it dropped through the net with such force that it made a sound that was heard throughout the gym. The gym was packed and the fans were on their feet, I had just hit my first three pointer of my varsity basketball career. As our team set up the press, sweat dripped from my face. I was close enough to kiss my opponent, there was no way he was going to get the ball. He shoved me backward and he planted his foot on mine, he then pushed off and ran for the inbounder. I fell back a few feet and sprinted towards my man. As the inbounder released the ball with a firm push I stuck my hand out in hopes for a steal, SNAP! As the ball was deflected towards the right my man ran and picked it up. I quickly looked down at my finger and with fear and pain walked over to my bench. My pinkie-finger on my right hand was at a ninety degree angle, as sweat dripped down may face I could feel myself getting hot. My stomach seemed to drop and I was feeling as if I was on a roller coaster. The game had been stopped and I was brought into the coaches room. My assistant coach led me into the room and sat me down on a wooden chair. I began to feel very cold, and my finger began to have a shooting pain. This pain was not present before and was no making itself known that there was something wrong with. My parents entered the room, my mother carrying a face that I never had seen before. My father with a calm collective look to him. The assistant then began to explain that there was to deal with this, either go to the hospital and miss the game or deal with it write in the room. My mother stared over at my coach when he relayed this message to me and my father seem to agree with my coach. I looked at my coach with eyes of trust and horror, and then laid my hand in his. He then took his hand and placed it over my pinkie. Which by now was swelling and extremely painful, he then got a firm grip and with one quick tug my finger Game Over :: essays research papers Game Over As I stood at the three point line, the ball seemed to be in slow motion. Screams from the crowd came as the ball dropped through the net. Not only did this shot go in but it dropped through the net with such force that it made a sound that was heard throughout the gym. The gym was packed and the fans were on their feet, I had just hit my first three pointer of my varsity basketball career. As our team set up the press, sweat dripped from my face. I was close enough to kiss my opponent, there was no way he was going to get the ball. He shoved me backward and he planted his foot on mine, he then pushed off and ran for the inbounder. I fell back a few feet and sprinted towards my man. As the inbounder released the ball with a firm push I stuck my hand out in hopes for a steal, SNAP! As the ball was deflected towards the right my man ran and picked it up. I quickly looked down at my finger and with fear and pain walked over to my bench. My pinkie-finger on my right hand was at a ninety degree angle, as sweat dripped down may face I could feel myself getting hot. My stomach seemed to drop and I was feeling as if I was on a roller coaster. The game had been stopped and I was brought into the coaches room. My assistant coach led me into the room and sat me down on a wooden chair. I began to feel very cold, and my finger began to have a shooting pain. This pain was not present before and was no making itself known that there was something wrong with. My parents entered the room, my mother carrying a face that I never had seen before. My father with a calm collective look to him. The assistant then began to explain that there was to deal with this, either go to the hospital and miss the game or deal with it write in the room. My mother stared over at my coach when he relayed this message to me and my father seem to agree with my coach. I looked at my coach with eyes of trust and horror, and then laid my hand in his. He then took his hand and placed it over my pinkie. Which by now was swelling and extremely painful, he then got a firm grip and with one quick tug my finger

Saturday, August 17, 2019

The Impact of Information Technology on Marketing Strategies for Health

Information has become the most valuable commodity in any market. Utilizing accurate information about customers and their interests is vital for successful marketing activities. In today's fast paced, highly competitive markets, companies must make marketing decisions quickly or risk losing their competitive edge. Using information technology (IT) allows companies to gather, analyze, and utilize large amounts of customer information. This information is used to reduce risk and uncertainty in decision making and maximize the profitability of marketing activities. IT also allows companies to evaluate the success, benefits, and profitability of IT investments, marketing strategies, and other business ventures over long periods of time. Today utilizing IT is essential in all aspects of marketing activities and successful marketing is not possible without the use of IT. Marketing in healthcare involves unique challenges which other markets do not face. According to Shaw (2008) "healthcar e marketers promote a service that is complicated, expensive, and even frightening." Most people do not want to imagine themselves needing healthcare products or services and usually reject information concerning the statistical chances of their future medical needs. As a result, traditional marketing techniques like directing products and services to specific consumers or broadcasting brand images are often ineffective in healthcare markets. In order to maintain a marketing advantage, healthcare marketers started moving toward a consumer driven marketing approach focused around consumer wants, needs, and expectations. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of IT on the marketing strategies of healthcare organizations. The rapid expans... ...ult, healthcare organizations have started marketing campaigns focused on patient privacy and cyber security. References Berisha-Namani, M. (2013). Information technology, internet, and marketing. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 4(1). doi: 10.7903/ijecs.1116 Kotler, P., & Clarke, R. N. (1987). Marketing for health care organizations (p. 265). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Rooney, K. (2009). Consumer-Driven Healthcare Marketing: Using the Web to Get Up Close and Personal. Journal Of Healthcare Management, 54(4), 241-251. Shaw, G. (2008). Department Focus: Marketing–Lessons from the Field. Online article on HealthLeaders Media website. White, K. R., Thompson, J. M., & Patel, U. B. (2001). Hospital Marketing Orientation and Managed Care Processes: Are They Coordinated?. Journal Of Healthcare Management, 46(5), 327. The Impact of Information Technology on Marketing Strategies for Health Information has become the most valuable commodity in any market. Utilizing accurate information about customers and their interests is vital for successful marketing activities. In today's fast paced, highly competitive markets, companies must make marketing decisions quickly or risk losing their competitive edge. Using information technology (IT) allows companies to gather, analyze, and utilize large amounts of customer information. This information is used to reduce risk and uncertainty in decision making and maximize the profitability of marketing activities. IT also allows companies to evaluate the success, benefits, and profitability of IT investments, marketing strategies, and other business ventures over long periods of time. Today utilizing IT is essential in all aspects of marketing activities and successful marketing is not possible without the use of IT. Marketing in healthcare involves unique challenges which other markets do not face. According to Shaw (2008) "healthcar e marketers promote a service that is complicated, expensive, and even frightening." Most people do not want to imagine themselves needing healthcare products or services and usually reject information concerning the statistical chances of their future medical needs. As a result, traditional marketing techniques like directing products and services to specific consumers or broadcasting brand images are often ineffective in healthcare markets. In order to maintain a marketing advantage, healthcare marketers started moving toward a consumer driven marketing approach focused around consumer wants, needs, and expectations. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of IT on the marketing strategies of healthcare organizations. The rapid expans... ...ult, healthcare organizations have started marketing campaigns focused on patient privacy and cyber security. References Berisha-Namani, M. (2013). Information technology, internet, and marketing. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 4(1). doi: 10.7903/ijecs.1116 Kotler, P., & Clarke, R. N. (1987). Marketing for health care organizations (p. 265). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Rooney, K. (2009). Consumer-Driven Healthcare Marketing: Using the Web to Get Up Close and Personal. Journal Of Healthcare Management, 54(4), 241-251. Shaw, G. (2008). Department Focus: Marketing–Lessons from the Field. Online article on HealthLeaders Media website. White, K. R., Thompson, J. M., & Patel, U. B. (2001). Hospital Marketing Orientation and Managed Care Processes: Are They Coordinated?. Journal Of Healthcare Management, 46(5), 327.

Importance in the Handmaid’s tale Essay

Explore the ways in which religion is presented and its importance in the Handmaid’s tale. Religion is presented in a numerous amount of ways in the Handmaid’s tale. Christianity or Puritanism is the leading faith in Gilead and is portrayed as a controlling mechanism, which not only controls people’s bodies but strives to control their minds. Inside Gilead biblical and religious references act as fundamental laws and polices towards the controlling regime of Gilead. The people within the regime of Gilead are subjected to harsh and rigid lifestyles. This is justified by the leaders of Gilead by the use of the bible. From Offred’s perspective we can see the strictness of the regime that she lives in. For example â€Å"They can hit us there is scriptural precedent†. Atwood clearly displays the theme of fundamentalism to demonstrate the ideologies of those that impose the rules Gilead. Offred’s perspective often gives the reader an insight into how one would feel if put in the situation of having the regime of Gilead imposed on them. Offred describes some of her actions when she is alone in her room, â€Å"I can spend minutes, tens of minutes running my eyes over the print FAITH†. This emphases to the reader the notion of hope and that if Offred is going to escape or survive the regime with her sanity intact she needs to have â€Å"faith†. Weather that is religious faith in the religion she has come to hate or alternatively it may be faith in herself that she can survive even in this time of dyer. Handmaids wear the colour red which signifies life, lust and love. However in this colour Offred sees herself as a â€Å"sister dipped in blood† this is ironic as â€Å"sister† is referring to a nun. Handmaids share many aspects of their lifestyles with living in a nunnery. For example the solitude and the excessive covering up of body parts. However there is one lifestyle trade that handmaids and nuns do not share. While nuns take a vow of celibacy, the sole purpose of Handmaid’s is to have sexual intercourse. This view of Offred presents irony. In addition to this the use of â€Å"blood† may give the reader connotations of sin and misconduct. This reveals that Offred believes what she is doing is wrong and sinful. In addition to Offred’s perspective, religion as a theme is introduce in the society of Gilead. While religion may be introduced through a controlling means to justify the polices of the regime. But in Gilead it is not so much seen as practical part of life. For example many parts of religion that one would associate with the modern day do not exist in the world of Gilead. For example in Gilead â€Å"the church is a small one†¦ It isn’t used any more, except as a museum. † This demonstrates that Gilead is only theoretically religious and doesn’t practice many practical elements of religion like going to church as they are not used in the world of Gilead. In addition to this Offred also shows that nunneries do not exist in the regime of Gilead. â€Å"time is measured in bells, as once in nunneries†. By saying â€Å"as once in nunneries† it reveals that they are not around anymore. This shows another practical element of religion that has been abolished. Not only have the leaders of Gilead used the bible as political justification to their regime they have also invented new parts of the bible to further control people. â€Å"Blessed are the silent. I knew they made that up, I knew it was wrong, and they left things out too, but there was no way of checking. † The fact that Gilead has made up new parts of the bible shows the leader have used fundamentalism as an excuse for the creation of the regime. In addition to this the fact that women had no way of checking shows they have no access to bibles therefore another practical part of religion is not in practise. Religion is presents the main strengths that Gilead uses to control the different positions and is used as a justification method. However religion is also what defeats Gilead as this is what gives Offred hope and faith.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Genocide in Bosnia Essay

The Bosnian genocide is often referred to as the hidden genocide, yet it had catastrophic effects on humanity. Over 100,000 people were killed and it displaced millions of people. The genocide occurred between 1992 and 1995. The Social Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was made up of six nations under the leadership of Josip Broz Tito. Once Tito passed away in 1990, there was a power vacuum, and politicians began a nationalistic campaign pitting Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks against each other. Hence, the beginning of an â€Å"ethnic cleansing† war (Campbell, 2003 p.511). Once Milosevic was the President of Republic of Serbia, he encouraged formation of violent uprisings by Serb nationals. Milosevic was interested in creating an ethnically pure Serb nation. Milosevic’s ambition worried the nations in the federal government; hence Croatia and Slovenia declared themselves independent from the republic. However, Croatia was not allowed to leave because it had 12% of the Serbian population. Hence Croatia became a battlefield between 1991- 1996. Bosnia-Herzegovina watched the horrors in Croatia as they worried about themselves being the next victim. Bosnia-Herzegovina held a referendum in 1992 and declared itself free from the republic. The Serbs in Bosnia were not happy about it, and they began fighting with the support of the Yugoslavian National Army. Bosnia and Croatia lacked weapons to defend themselves because the UN had enacted an embargo, thus they were victims of an endless cycle of violence, displacement and death (Schott, 2011 p.19). Serbian plan of attack entailed the following steps; concentration, decapitation, separation, evacuation ad liquidation. During concentration stage, Serbian soldiers would warn Serbians to leave the town they were about to attack and surround the city with artillery fire. The second stage involved execution of the town’s leaders, military and intelligence. On the third stage, Serbian soldiers would separate women, children and old people from â€Å"fighting group†. Women, children and old people would be taken to concentration camps, while the young people were executed. This brings me to the subject of this essay. Women were targeted in specific ways when compa red to men. Unlike, the young male soldiers who were executed, women lived longer to and experience  untold suffering under the Serb soldiers. Women were interchangeably used by soldiers as sexual trophies (Lentin, 1997). This essay analyses the genocide on a gendered frame, so as to shine light on the awful atrocities women faced in the hands of Serbian militia. From a gender frame, sexual violence in war cannot be reduced to psychological attributes of the perpetrators. Genocidal rape has to be analyzed in terms of social structures. Rape in Bosnia was systematic, since it was planned. Bosnian genocide is the only genocide that women bodies were used as a battlefield. This genocide trampled upon all women rights. The Serbian militants lacked respect and sympathy for women. The Yugoslav army, Bosnian Serb forces and Chetniks came up with a sexual violence campaign against Croats and Muslim women. They killed, imprisoned, terrorized and raped women in the hope that they would leave and never come back. The attack on women was not an accident. It was premeditated as a lot of soldiers took part in sexual violence campaign. Th eir commanders were aware of what was going on, and they turned a blind eye. The attackers used the Ram & Brana plan of attack (1991). The plan said that successful attacks should be the one carried out on the enemy’s weakest point. The weakest point during wars is usually women and children. By attacking the weakest point, they were able to spread panic and fear in the population hence Croats and Bosnians could only run away for safety (Abreu, 2005 p.5). Since this was an â€Å"ethnic cleansing war†, the Serbian armed forces believed that sexual violence against women was an act of tainting the bloods of the Croats and Bosnians (Allen, 1996 p. 23). Culture and religion played a big part in this war; hence the attackers believed that they were annihilating their culture through sexual violence. The Serbians waged a psychological warfare on their enemies, such that they believed that by raping women, impregnating them and forcefully aborting their fetuses they were cleansing them. The Serbian armed forces also carried out sexual assaults against men. Serbia, Bosnia and almost all Balkan nations are lawfully heterosexual nations. Hence by raping men, they were degrading them or feminizing them and making them powerless. By raping their victims, the victims were gendered as feminine or attached with feminine qualities of vulnerability. Apart from the psychological effects of sexual violence on women, women faced a lot of physical suffering in the â€Å"rape camps†. The Serbian forces had created rape camps as a substitute for  concentration camps, so that they would use them to sexually violate women. In fact the Serbian forces had a modus operandi for sexually assaulting women (Abreu, 2005 p.11). The modus operandi was characterized by three patterns; public rape of children and women in their villages, sporadic rape of women and children in concentration camps and lastly rape in death/ rape camps. During the three stages women were subjected to all kinds of violence. Women went through gang rapes, sexual mutilations, forced impregnation and childbirth, sexual abuse with foreign objects and family me mbers were forced to rape their women. The extreme sexual violence was meant to defile, destroy the community and to make them leave. It is obvious that the war was motivated by nationalistic intentions, but the way the war was carried out, misogyny is another probable cause of the war. Most atrocities that took place in Bosnia genocide have been termed as â€Å"femicidal† (Turpin 1998 p. 67). Bosnians and Croats have traditional cultures. Women are supposed to be pure, and when they are not pure they are ostracized from the society. After the genocide, women who were victim of sexual violence were avoided. The tainted women were no longer acceptable by their friends and families, and this was the goal of the Serbian perpetrators. This justifies the fact that misogyny could have been another reason for the war. In a gendered frame analysis, it is clear that there was feminization of the genocide (MacKinnon, 2006 p.18). In genocide, women are usually seen as universal victims. Sexual violence against women is seen as a mortal sin against motherhood. The notion of ‘combat’ and battlefields are constructs of masculinity. The Serbian armed forces believed that through sexual violence campaign, they would turn their victims powerless (Femininity) analysis of war is often carried out from a masculine point of view. However, Bosnia genocide is gendered, as it represents women as victims, sexual objects, symbolic of their nation and repositories of their families. The Serbs militia believed that by defiling the women, they would be defiling the nations (Bosnia and Croatia) Collins (1996) attempts to explain genocidal rape from a feminist perspective, he says that women are the ones who hold families and the community. Their physical and emotional destruction through rape is a symbol of destruction of the social and cultural stability of a nation. The sexual violence involved heightened sadism, for instance forceful rape with family members. The sexual violence  aimed at destroying the victims emotionally, destroying the community and imposing restrictions on women so as to control births. The sexual genocide did not only target the individual victim, but it targeted the group too. Rape as a genocide strategy destroys women’s role as mothers and caregivers, hence the pivotal source of the life to the community is destroyed. According to Mc Kinnon (2006, 187), sexual campaign was used by the Serbian military as a tool for political campaign, soldiers were to rape under orders. The sexual violence campaign was characterized by forced rape and forced impregnation. After the Croatian and muslim women were sexually abuse, they were denied abortions so that they would give birth to â€Å"Serb† babies. Forced impregnation was seen as a way of destroying the maternal community as they gave birth to the child of the enemy ( Allen, 1996 p.76). The rapists violated the rights of women through forceful procreation, which is a deliberate and a sadist act. The children of the rapists often stigmatized or abandoned as they brought negative memories to their mothers. The forced pregnancies on rape victims were seen as a way of preventing births among the Croats and Muslims. The perpetrators of rape believed that they were producing â€Å"Little Chetniks†. From a feminist perspective, the act of forced imp regnation is like imposing a social death on the victims. The women were tortured, and they did not want those children. It turned Croatian and Muslim women as gestating beings for the enemy. Stories from the war show a lot of women who recounted how they were raped repeatedly until they were pregnant, and the women wanted nothing to do with the children. Another explanation of forced rape is the fact that rape was used as a tool of biological warfare. Forced rape and impregnation meets the requirement of biological warfare according to international law (Seifet, 1996 p.42). MacKinnon also analyzes Bosnian rape by comparing it with pornography. In the 1990s, pornography was very common in Yugoslavia. When porn is common in a society, the whole population learns to dehumanize women and inflict sexual assault. Pornographic materials provided the need motivation and materials for Serbian forces. In the rape camps, women were ordered to perform for men; in fact some rapes were filmed and sold as pornographic products since they could not be differentiated from actual pornography. The films were even released in the media so as to amass popularity for Bosnian war. The dialogue s in the pornography were used to  implicate Croatian soldiers. According to MacKinnon (2006), sexual violence was used so consciously and cynically in a way that destroyed people. Once pornography was released, more Serbian forces were encouraged to continually assault women. Genocidal rape in Bosnia was seen as an ethno marker. Ethnic markers are things such as dressing, lifestyle and language. The Serbians, Croats and Bosnians had almost similar ethnic markers. Since they were a part of Yugoslavia republic, the ethnic lines had been blurred. Rape was used by the Serbs to act as a moral ethno marker, as it separated them from the Croats and Muslims. They felt that it created cultural superiority of the Serbians. In fact Serbian law was amended to include ethnic rape, and they believed that the differences in ethnicity aggravated the crime. The mass rapes occurred in places where Serbs were a minority when compared to the size of Croats and Muslims (Allen, 1996 p.19). This was a way of asserting their superiority in the region. Sexual violence was also used to socialize new military recruits. Rape isolated the new recruits from the community and prepared them for battlefield. In Bosnia, sexual violence perpetrated by new recruits occurred in front of other soldiers and the victims even know their perpetrators. The Bosnian war was used by the Serbs to renegotiate their relationship with the other Balkan nations. Rape was seen as a way of establishing new boundaries, as they felt that they were the superior ethnic group. From a gender based analysis it is evident that the legal framework did not address the sexual violence against women in Bosnia well (MacKinnon, 2006 p.89). The law blamed the genocide on ethnicity, and disregarded the fact that it was sex based. The Serb military attack on women was premeditated and executed in three stages. The creation of rape camps shows that the intent was sexually based, in as much as it was ethnically motivated. Failure by the law to acknowledge this is a huge set back on women rights. The law perpetuates patriarchy in legal constructs in violation of women rights. Failure to acknowledge it also prevents the law from addressing the genocidal rape adequately. The law is ignoring the existence and horrifying effects of genocidal sexual terrorism to women (Abreu, 2005 p. 16). This is quite cowardly as the law uses ethnicity to cover the severe harm that women suffered in the hands of Serbian militants. The law enables the perpetrators to hide under ethnic crimes, yet they committed more inhumane atrocities. The law usually acknowledges sexual  crimes, but sexual crimes during genocides were only termed as other inhumane acts. This is blatant sex discrimination propagated by the law. In conclusion, analyzing genocide on a gender framed perspective gives various explanations and perspectives on the violence against women in Bosnia. The sexual violence against women in Bosnia genocide is distinct. Many women can recount the horror they went through in the hands of the Serbian perpetrators. The violence against women was planned as a war strategy. International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) should recognize genocidal sex terrorism, rather than hiding it under ethnic-based persecutions (Campbell, 2003 p.509). Serbian militants reduced women as a means of achieving their goals for the genocide. Addressing this problem will help the victim feel like they have achieved some semblance of justice, though nothing can compare to what they went through. Genocide sexual terrorism should be acknowledged by the law, and the legal elements regarding it should be outlined. Using a gender frame to analyze genocide helps us learn about the psychological and soc ial reasons for rape during genocides, rather than just saying that they were raped because they belonged to the enemy’s side. References Abreu, Veronica. (2005) Women’s Bodies as Battlefields In The Former Yugoslavia: An Argument For The Prosecution Of Sexual Terrorism As Genocide And For The Recognition of Genocidal Sexual Terrorism As A Violation Of Jusc Cogens Under International Law. The Georgetown Journal of Gender and Law, Vol. V1:1 Allen, B (1996) Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Campbell, K., 2003, â€Å"Rape as a ‘Crime Against Humanity’: Trauma, Law and Justice in the ICTY†, Journal of Human Rights, 2(4): 507–515. Caringella, S., (2008) Addressing Rape Reform in Law and Practice, New York: Columbia University Press. Jones, Adam (2006) Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. New York City: Routledge, 2006. MacKinnon, C., (2006) Are Women Human? And Other International Dialogues, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press. Ringelheim, J.M. (1997) ‘Genocide and gender: a split memory’ in R. Lentin (editor) Gender and Catastrophe. London: Zed Books. Schott, R. (2011), â€Å"War Rape, Natality and Genocide†, Journal of Genocide Research, 13(1/2): 5-21. Seifert, R., (1996), â€Å"The Second Front: The Logic of Sexual Violence in Wars†, Women’s Studies International Forum, 19(1/2): 35–43. Turpin, J. (1998) ‘Many faces: women confronting war’ in L.A. Lorentzen and J. Turpin (editors) The Women and War Reader. New York: New York University Press.