Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Critical Decisions for ERP Integration

Question: Discuss about the Critical Decisions for ERP Integration. Answer: Introduction. The most competitive advantage of a business largely depends on its possibility to benefit from innovation activities. Understanding a number of the internal and external factors that affect a business and its management is necessary to decide the innovation strategy that will eventually yield income for the organization. Business is an organization where an exchange of goods and services takes place for money or one another (Trkman, 2010). Business decision making is not just a one-time experiment; it is a continuous process that must be solved in harmony with the organization strategy. Critical organizational issues are usually accompanied by lots of business processes, business structure, and strategy. A critical business issue can be defined as a problem or opportunity which is critical to the general success of an organization. This paper aims at examining some of the critical issues that are related to business and management context, and to gain clarity of the contextual facto rs that affect an organizational business decision making. Organizational behaviors Organizational behaviors define both the supervisory relationships, the structure of a business and workflow within the organization. The behaviors of an employee at work are different from their behaviors in a social setting or at home. There are certain factors that can motivate an employee or contribute to disengagement. These includes; culture, motivation, decision-making and change management (Ajmal, Martel Kokale, 2010). When a new employee enters an organization, their behaviour will be determined by the organizational culture. People tend to fit in the environment around them since they are social beings. If an organizations culture encourages its employees to speak up without fear, then new employees will embrace this as well. While if an organizations culture encourages the shoot the messenger trend, then it is clear that the employees will keep their opinions to themselves. Employees are mostly motivated when they can spot a clear distinction between the efforts that they put and the rewards they receive when they work hard. A salary should not be the only reason for an employee top show up at work (Klibi, Martel Guitoni, 2010). Rewards must be available and should fair and equitable to ensure that the employees of the organization are inspired to work hard. Human beings make business decisions, whether at the organizational or individual levels. The organizations' behaviour greatly informs the peoples decision making process. Businesses with excellent and good communication mechanisms make it easier for staff to make effective choices because well acquainted with the concepts of the business in question. All businesses should respond to dynamic markets, critical requirements and client demands if they must succeed. Businesses and companies can manage change effectively if they understand the organizational behaviour (Klibi, Martel Guitoni, 2010). The need for change in an organization should be openly discussed; employees should be involved and given a chance to participate fully. Business managers should also adapt to the changes. Environmental sources Both internal and external environmental factors influence business. The internal factors includes those factors which exist within the organizations' premises. They affect the different operations that take place in the business. The internal factors include; a value system, mission and objectives, financial factors and internal relationship (Russo Perrini, 2010). A value system is the culture and norms of a given organization; this is the regulatory system or framework of the business. Every employee and managers are required to act within the limits of this framework. The missions and objectives guide an organization's different priorities, policies, and philosophies. Financial factors which come in forms of policies, financial status and capital structures also affects the performance and strategies of the business. Internal relationships refer to the support that the executive management is given by all the stakeholders of the business. Outside factors affecting a business can be further divided into micro and macro environment factors. The microenvironment factors include suppliers, competitors and marketing intermediaries. Suppliers are the people who have the responsibility of supplying the necessary inputs to an organization. The organizations management should keep a close look on the market come up with necessary strategies and policies that will enable them to face the competition they face from other organizations (Malhotra Temponi, 2010). Marketing intermediaries help the organization in promoting, selling as well as distributing business goods and services to customers. This makes marketing intermediaries the only vital link between the business owners and consumers. These macro environment factors include economic, social, political and technological factors. Economic factors that affect business are the economic conditions together with policies that contribute to the economic environment together. An example includes rate, inflation, and impeding trade practices. The social factors are the general society, together with the priorities s well as preferences which include educational background, peoples purchasing power, and consumption patterns (Zikmund, Babin, Carr Griffin, 2013). The political factors are linked to business public affairs management and their impact on the organization. In order to maintain political stability in trade, it is important to maintain political stability. Recent technology helps improve the market attractiveness of a product hence making the commodity attractive to the end consumer. It is, therefore, important that a business keeps pace with the dynamic technologies to survive in the long run. Risk confronting the organization Organizations face all types of risks, some of these risks sometimes causes serious loss of profits others even leading to bankruptcy. Business is likely to face the following types of risks; strategic risks, risk of operation, risk of compliance, risks related to finances and reputational risks. Strategic risks are when the business strategy becomes less effective forcing the company to struggle to achieve its goals (George, McGahan Prabhu, 2012). Strategic risk can be caused by technological changes, a strong new competitor, shifts in the customer demand, cost of raw material spikes, and any other large scale change. Compliance risks involve a business ability to comply with all the required laws and regulations that apply to business. New laws are implemented all the time. Hence there is always a risk that an organization is likely to face more regulations in the near future. When the business expands, they may find the need to comply with new rules that did not exist when the bu siness was started. Operational risk involves an unexpected failure in an organizations day to day operations. This could be a technical failure or could be caused by the employees, management or the processes of the company. Am operational risk could also be caused sometimes by events outside an organizations' control, for example, a power cut, natural disaster, technical problems, etc. Financial risk refers to the finances flowing in and out of the organization, and the possible fact that a sudden financial loss could occur. Financial risk increases when a business engages in debts, especially if some of these debts are short term that is due in the near future (Sarkis, Zhu Lai, 2011). In any business, reputation is everything. If a reputation of a business is damaged, an immediate loss is realized as most customers attracted to organizations with good reputations. Reputational risks come off major lawsuits, embarrassing product recall or negative publicity about an organizations' staff or business i tself. Governance and legal requirement Many legislations affect businesses by providing legal definitions, establishing operational and finance related codes that should be followed by business firms. These legal requirements come in forms of regulatory, labour, tax and reporting legislations. The laws and regulations have a direct impact on how business firms operate within particular business environments. These forms of regulations are formulated and implemented as codes and environmental rules and regulations. Labour laws refers to regulations that look into the manner in which employees are treated in an organization. These includes regulations such as minimum pay, protection of workers, and payment garnishment rules. Tax laws that a business should consider are following the principles of accounting. However, many are viewed as significant notable deviations, such as the schedules regulating depreciations that the government allows (Taricchi, Toneli Cagnazzo, 2010). Finally, the laws and regulations of tax regulate s the manner in which organizations present their financial reports Organizational functions consist of a marketing department, Human Resources departments, and information technology departments. The organizational functions break the companys works into different groups, forcing the individual's group to accomplish their tasks or the whole organization suffers. Businesses can have different ways of dividing responsibilities and duties throughout the company (Doz, 2011). When each department completes their assigned task successfully, then everything runs smoothly. In a case where either an employee or a manager, fails to accomplish their task or delays to do so, there is a risk of not being able to deliver, hence pissing off customers and stakeholders, this will automatically result in the business realizing losses. Positive work and business practice In business, it makes much sense when employees are satisfied with their work as well as workplace conditions. This includes balancing the needs and capacity of the organization to that of the employees. There are certain areas that an organization needs to consider to enable a positive work in the business entity (Al-Debei Avison, 2010). These includes getting the basic conditions right, being a good communicator, having a positive management approach among others. Organizations who fail to set up good business practice may end up not running smoothly. Business owners should practice the art of engaging in meaningful dialogues, showing appreciation where necessary, listening to both customer and employees ideas and trusting team members as well. References Ajmal, M., Helo, P., Kekle, T. (2010). Critical factors for knowledge management in project business.Journal of knowledge management,14(1), 156-168. Al-Debei, M. M., Avison, D. (2010). Developing a unified framework of the business model concept.European Journal of Information Systems,19(3), 359-376. Doz, Y. (2011). Qualitative research for international business.Journal of International Business Studies,42(5), 582-590. George, G., McGahan, A. M., Prabhu, J. (2012). Innovation for inclusive growth: Towards a theoretical framework and a research agenda.Journal of management studies,49(4), 661- 683. Klibi, W., Martel, A., Guitouni, A. (2010). The design of robust value-creating supply chain networks: a critical review.European Journal of Operational Research,203(2), 283-293. Lin, F., Rodrguez-Cohard, J. C., Rueda-Cantuche, J. M. (2011). Factors affecting entrepreneurial intention levels: a role for education.International entrepreneurship and management Journal,7(2), 195-218. Malhotra, R., Temponi, C. (2010). Critical decisions for ERP integration: Small business issues.International Journal of Information Management,30(1), 28-37. Russo, A., Perrini, F. (2010). Investigating stakeholder theory and social capital: CSR in large firms and SMEs.Journal of Business ethics,91(2), 207-221. Sarkis, J., Zhu, Q., Lai, K. H. (2011). An organizational theoretic review of green supply chain management literature.International Journal of Production Economics,130(1), 1-15. Taticchi, P., Tonelli, F., Cagnazzo, L. (2010). Performance measurement and management: a literature review and a research agenda.Measuring business excellence,14(1), 4-18. Trkman, P. (2010). The critical success factors of business process management.International journal of information management,30(2), 125-134. Zikmund, W. G., Babin, B. J., Carr, J. C., Griffin, M. (2013).Business research methods. City, Boston, MA. Cengage Learning.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Current Credit Crisis in the United States Understanding the Trigger Factors

Nearly four years after the collapse of the Lehman Brothers and the subsequent financial downturn that followed, and which most financial commentators blamed on the housing bumble and subprime lending (Mills, 2009), the economic environment of the United States continue to struggle as markets continue to be embraced by fears of new setbacks, defaults and the prospect of experiencing a new double-dip recession (Gibson, 2011).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Current Credit Crisis in the United States: Understanding the Trigger Factors specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This paper purposes to critically evaluate the underlying causes of the current credit crisis sweeping through the United States. Behind the current credit crisis lie many factors, including the free fall of the U.S. stocks, the obstinately high employment rate in the U.S., the politically-oriented scuffle in Washington over the federal debt ceiling, a nd the decision by credit rating firms, particularly Standard Poor’s, to demote the government’s AAA rating after its aftermath (Inman, 2011; Gibson, 2011; Morales Mendes, 2011). Perhaps one of the most overbearing causes of the current credit crisis is the just-ended political scuffle over hiking the U.S. debt ceiling by $2.1 trillion, while reducing future government spending by $2.4 trillion (Gibson, 2011; Rowley Dodge, 2011). Financial analysts observe that although the raised debt ceiling made significant strides in avoiding massive default, it also rattled investors just coming to terms with a shaky U.S. economy, precipitating the current credit crisis (Gibson, 2011). It is true that a political compromise was found before the U.S. Treasury missed interest payments on U.S. debt (Peauler, 2011), but the damage had already been done in terms of low investor confidence, hence low credit flow. The cumulative effect of political indecisiveness witnessed between the Republicans and the Democrats got the investors nervous, a fact that is so well demonstrated by the dipping U.S. stocks as investors attempt to sell them off (Peauler, 2011). This is precisely the second cause that has occasioned the current credit crisis.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More On the 1st of August 2011, one day before the presumed deadline to raise the U.S. debt ceiling or risk missing out on interest payments (Peauler, 2011), the Dow Jones Industrial Average shed off 265.87 points, or 2.2 percent, to 11,866.62, its worst day of trading since June 1, while the SP 500 projected a new closing low for 2011 and turned negative for the year (Gibson, 2011). Such a dip in stocks, according to this author, only serves to precipitate a cloud of uncertainty over the market, thereby contributing to a further loss of confidence among investors and, consequently, triggering t he credit crisis because financial institutions lack the capacity to offer credit to businesses (Peauler, 2011). The decision by credit rating firm Standard Poor to downgrade the government’s AAA rating cannot be said to have augured well with the United States’ continuously shaky economic environment by virtue of the fact that such a decision, by its very nature and scope, is enough to put investors into frenzy of disposing whatever they might have held in U.S. Treasury securities (Peauler, 2011). Once again, available evidence have demonstrated that when investors dispose off U.S. Treasury securities, the cumulative effect is that banks will no longer have the capacity to provide credit to businesses (Levinson, 2009), triggering a spontaneous credit crisis. Lastly, it can be argued that the high level of underemployment and unemployment witnessed in the U.S. is partly to blame for the weak economic outlook in general and the ensuing credit crisis in particular. A re cent Gallup study revealed that 18.5 percent (approximately 1 in every 4) of workers in the U.S. are underemployed, including 9.1 percent unemployed (Morales Mendes, 2011). The high level of underemployment and unemployment translates into lower consumer spending – a fact collaborated by these authors when they argue that Americans’ spending has remained fundamentally dormant since it plummeted dramatically in January 2009. The overall effect of these two variables – unemployment and low consumer spending – is seen in plummeting property prices, low business volumes, and sustained uncertainty in the financial markets as people are not spending and industries are not growing (Yerex, 2011). These factors are adequate to serve as a toxic trigger to a new credit crisis.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Current Credit Crisis in the United States: Understanding the Trigger Factors specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reference List Gibson, K. (2011). U.S. stocks in worst streak since credit crisis. Market Watch. Web. Inman, P. (2011). Banks are in a capital crunch again. The Guardian. Web. Levinson, M. (2009). Guide to financial markets. New York, NY: Bloomberg Press Mills, D.Q. (2009). The world financial crisis of 2008-2010: What happened, who is to blame, and how to protect your money? Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press Morales, L., Mendes, E. (2011). Three years after crisis, little sign of economic relief in U.S. Web. Peauler, R. (2011). Another credit crisis looming for business if debt ceiling is not raised. Web. Rowley, J., Dodge, C. (2011). House passes $2.1 trillion U.S. Debt-limit increase; Senate to vote Aug. 2. Web.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Yerex, R.P. (2011). The consumer-driven economy at a crossroads. Business Economics, 46(1), 32-42. Retrieved from MasterFILE Premier Database This essay on Current Credit Crisis in the United States: Understanding the Trigger Factors was written and submitted by user Emmitt B. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Urban Sprawl and Public Health Article Summary

Urban Sprawl and Public Health Article Summary â€Å"Urban Sprawl and Public Health†, a journal article authored by Howard Frumkin in 2001 gives a detailed account of the physical and mental effects of urban expansion. The concept ‘urban sprawl’ refers to rapid development of urban areas against slow development of social amenities (Frumkin, 2001, p.3).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Urban Sprawl and Public Health Article Summary specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The author expounds that some of the distinct features that characterize urban sprawl include; increased economic opportunities, poor regional planning, and overreliance on automotive travel, which has a negative effect on physical health (Frumkin, 2001, p.1). Subsequently, abrupt extension of metropolitan areas leads to the emergence of social homogeneity that is undeniably detrimental to the health of city residents. Frumkin (2001, p.1) highlights that the effects of urban sprawl ha ve been debated for long. However, little attention has been focused on health implications arising from this phenomenon. It is essential to note that, urban lounge affect people’s life both positively and negatively. Against this background, this essay provides a summative analysis of the impacts of urban sprawl on mental and physical health of urban residents. In-depth analysis of literature has shown urban sprawl have adverse physical effects among urban dwellers. From the article, it is evident that people are highly motivated to shift from rural to metropolitan areas, yet some essential natural resources are not available in city centres. For instance, in urban areas there are no trees and other aesthetic facilities such as open ground recreational amenities (Frumkin, 2001, p.3). Moreover, the author emphasizes that physical activities in the densely populated urban centres has become a notable challenge. Lack of recreation activities, which are known to alleviate stress , affects both the physical and mental health of urban dwellers negatively.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Secondly, research conducted by psychologists indicates that people enjoy automotive commuting, yet it exposes them to mental stress, especially in the eventuality of heavy traffic jam. Moreover, excessive noise originating from traffic and industrial activities deprive urban dwellers a tranquil and calm atmosphere (Frumkin, 2001, p.3). Consequently, due to lack of soothing and restorative atmosphere most people suffer from headaches and other stress-related complications. It is reasonable to illuminate that a shift from suburbs to urban results to social isolation, loneliness and breakup of family ties, and this further leads to mental stress among city dwellers. Besides, Frumkin explicates that urban dwellers are susceptible to illnesses that are associated wit h large crowds. Poor urban zoning and influx of large crowds leads to scarcity of basic amenities. It is definite that when mental health of an individual is threatened, then the physical and emotional state of the body is affected too (Frumkin 2001, p.3). Studies have revealed that excessive commuting results to backaches and self-reported stress. Additionally, cardiovascular ailments have become a common phenomenon due to lack of exercise and stress. Since urban sprawl is characterized by heavy traffic, cases of accidents are rampant especially in situations where traffic safety is neglected (Frumkin, 2001, p.3). Another point of concern is that pollution results to respiratory ailments. Poor urban planning results to scarcity of basic facilities such as water utilized by the public and this can result to an outbreak of waterborne diseases.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Urban Sprawl and Public Health Article Summary specifically for you for only $16.0 5 $11/page Learn More There is a need to hypothesize that social separation especially among married people due to urban employment results to immorality which has adverse effects to one’s health (Frumkin, 2001, p.3). Consequently, sexual immorality in the urban centres increases the risk of sexually transmitted ailments, thus increasing mortality rate. Reference Frumkin, H 2001, ‘Urban Sprawl and Public health’, Public Health Reports, vol, 117, no.1, pp.1-3.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Leadership Approach Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Leadership Approach - Essay Example Different approaches tackle different ways of scrutinizing leaders in different organizations. However, they have a common feature which is the determination of effective leadership. The leadership study approaches have been in existence since the early 90’s. The approaches have evolved to more efficient and appropriate approaches. The leadership study approaches include the trait approach, behavior approach, power influence approach, situational approach and the integrative approach. All the approaches have three key variables; characteristics of the leader, characteristics of the followers and the characteristics of the situation. This paper will focus on behavior approach of studying leadership (Yuki, 2010). It will give an insight in the characteristics of this leadership study approach. Additionally, the paper will include an insight on its strengths and weaknesses and an example of its application in studying leadership. Behavioral approach of studying leadership was est ablished in the early 1950’s after the trait approach failed to provide researchers with the required results to evaluate leaders (Yuki, 2010). The behavior approach pays close attention to managers and leaders in organizations. It evaluates some personal attributes and skills at a closer perspective. The approach is divided into two categories of scrutiny. The first category focuses on the research on the manager’s job description, how they spend their time, their daily pattern of activities, their responsibilities and the functions of their managerial jobs. In this category some researches also focus on how managers deal with constraints and demands and how they resolve conflicts in their line of duty. In this category data collection is mainly done through observation, job description questionnaires, diaries and anecdotes from retrieved from interviews (Griffin, 2011). The mangers effectiveness in this subcategory is their ability to solve role conflicts cope with d emands, deal with constraints and recognize opportunities. The other subcategory in behavior study approach entails the identifying of effective and appropriate leadership behavior. In this subcategory research methodology is mainly done by a survey of the research field and using an appropriate questionnaire. The questionnaire is an inclusion of behavior description questions. Since the establishment of this approach researchers have been able to identify the correlation between a manager’s behavior and effective leadership (Yuki, 2010). This leadership approach has several weaknesses and strengths when it comes to application and results. According to Yuki (2010) the strengths of this approach revolve around the personal knowledge of a leader. This approach enables researchers to know a manager more when not and when in their job description. The personal attributes of a manager are very important in analyzing their effectiveness. By its method of data collection a managerà ¢â‚¬â„¢s skills and effectiveness is able to be scrutinized in a personal basis. The evaluation of a manager’s ability to solve conflicts is also a unique feature in this leadership study approach (Griffin, 2011). Additionally, this approach provides a perspective on the correlation between the personal attributes of a manager and their effectiveness in their job description. This approach mostly questionnaires as a tool of data collection. This

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Business Process and Systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Business Process and Systems - Essay Example In operation management, the management of the entire process relating to the production and marketing of the products or services are involved. The distribution management consists of the organising and control of the basic functions of product distribution in the market. In the old system adopted by the company, each crop is decided by the tenant and the business receives rent and a percentage of the profit. Certified organic products would help to gain the market with greater profit. Expansion of the business requires greater access to the market through considerable changes in the organisation structure. It is better to modify the production operation by giving clear cut planning relating to each of the organic farm products that has to be produced by each of the tenant. It will be more effective in production as the targeted quantity of each of the product type can be ensured. Inventory management: Too much inventory and lack of enough demand will generate great financial loss to the business. Maximising cash flows should be the aim of the business. To gain this, the inventory management system should be strengthened by shortening the forecasting time and analysis of the sales and demand data. Improved communication process is another essential factor for the efficient distribution process. Best practises of inventory management, with advanced technology tools, are helpful for improving the inventory management. Online distribution management system can be applied for improving the efficiency. It will facilitate the integration of factors such as customers, stocks, distribution and services in cost effective manner. Distribution chain starting from the vendors to the customers’ electronic distribution system can be applied. Supply chain management is greatly related to the co-ordination of different functions in the business such as procurement of materials from the farmers, co-ordination between different players in the

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Leadership and Action Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Leadership and Action - Article Example Leaders may play many roles and therefore are required to perform diverse actions to fulfill the requirements for the development of the organization. It is manifested that actions performed by the leader depends on the functions that leader is performing at that particular time (Krench, 1962). The following actions are performed by the leader: Purveyor of rewards and punishment: Leader is the one who can act as an encouragement for his subordinates by rewarding them and also encourage them to do the best and up to desired expectations by punishing them. Punishment is also an encouragement and brings the best within the individual. Father figure: A leader is required to act as a focused and have positive emotional feelings for the fellows for the identification of the problem and also for transference. It is desired for the transparency and to build trust among the fellows towards their leader. 1. Chemers, M. M. (2002). Cognitive, social, and emotional intelligence of transformational leadership: Efficacy and Effectiveness. In R. E. Riggio, S. E. Murphy, F. J. Pirozzolo (Eds.), Multiple Intelligences and Leadership.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Frankenstein | Feminist Interpretation

Frankenstein | Feminist Interpretation In most 18th century stories, men portray to be the more dominate figure in the story or family. Women in the stories tend to be less important than the males. In Mary Shelleys Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus, women are mention that much and even if they are, they end up being killed or dying. Feminist interpreters tend to think Shelley has patriarchal man-centered views regarding gender roles. The idea of inactive women in a patriarchal society tremendously impacts the scheme of the novel. This is a complicated topic because most of her women characters are quiet, content women who, at first, share little similarities with self-confident women. Women did not have many rights as men and they could not stand up for themselves. If a woman were to do so they would be label as impertinent and unthankful. Shelleys approach on women is more complex than what we know it. She reveals to us that women are ambiguous and conflicting people, without a vast amount of control. Shelley reve als the injustice discreetly all through the book. All through the novel, Mary Shelley suggests that women are victims in a patriarchal world. In Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus, Caroline Beaufort Frankenstein, Justine Moritz, and Elizabeth Lavenza are examples victims of a patriarchal world, dominated by men Caroline Beaufort Frankenstein, Victors mother is a victim in a patriarchal world. After her fathers death, Caroline is taken in by, and later marries, Alphonse Frankenstein. She ends up marrying Alphonse, a friend of her father. Alphonse later became her protector, he came like a protecting spirit to the poor girl, who committed herself to his care; and after the interment of his friend he conducted her to Geneva and placed her under the protection of a relation. Two years after this event Caroline became his wife (18). Alphonse is the dominate figure over Caroline, he is her protector. This shows women, like Caroline are not capable of taking care of themselves. In chapter 1, Shelley portrayal of Alphonses care for Caroline sounds as if she is in charge, Everything was made to yield to her wishes and her convenience (19). This short description shows that Caroline is cherished by Alphonse, making her more dominate. Shelley tells how Alphonse, strove to shelter her, as a fair exotic is sheltered by the gardener, from every rougher wind and to surround her with all that could tend to excite pleasurable emotion in her soft and benevolent mind (19). Shelley seems to portray women as a delicate person they needs to be care for by a man. Women, like Caroline appears to being incapable of taking care of themselves. This implies that women are victims in a patriarchal society, dominated by men. Justine Moritz lives with the Frankenstein family as their servant after her mother pass away. She is a victim in a patriarchal world, dominated by men. After William is murdered, the creature puts an image of Caroline, Williams mother, that William was carrying in Justines pocket and she is blame of murder. She later confesses wrongly to the crime out of trepidation of going to Hell. Victor did not believe that she has murder William saying, Justine Moritz! Poor, poor girl, is she the accused? But it is wrongfully; everyone knows that; no one believes it surely, Ernest? (62). Even after this she is still guilty of the murder and is executed. This reveals that Justine is a victim because even though she did not actually murder William, she was found guilty. The murdered was actually a male, the creature, yet Justine was punished. She is wrongfully executed for an action of a man. Justine is an innocent girl; she would rather face the consequences of a murder conviction than be excomm unicated by the church. Justine, a pure innocent soul, has no one defend her in trial. Yet, when Victor, a men, accused of killing Henry Clerval, has many people to defend him, a much more corrupt soul. For this reason Justine is put to death, therefore she is also a victim of a male dominate world. Elizabeth Lavenza is an example of women being victims in a male dominated world. Elizabeth is an orphan taken in by Victors parents. She is passive, waiting for Victors return. She is a victim is a mans whole because all she does majority of the time in the novel is wait for him to return. After receiving the news that Victor has fallen deeply ill she immediately writes him a letter, My dear Friend, It gave me the greatest please to receive a letter from my uncleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦my poor cousin, how much you must have suffered! I expect to see you looking even more ill than when you quitted Genevaà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦My uncle will send me news of your health, and if I see but one smile on your lips when we meet, occasioned by this or any other excretion of mine, I shall need no other happiness (165-166). Elizabeth seems obsess with Victor, Shelleys portrayal of her seems to be as if she is in need of Victor, as if she would die without him. Elizabeth models the Victorian angel in the house. Victor describes her as a being heaven-sent. bearing a celestial stamp in all her features, fairer than pictured cherub (20). Victors description of Elizabeth makes us think that she is an angel. Victor is very fond of her, this show that Victor treasures her greatly, hence her being dominate over Victor for a moment. Victors action is the cause of Elizabeths death, because of the promise Victor broke to the creature he vows to take revenge on Victor. The creature ends up murdering Elizabeth on her honeymoon night with Victor. Even though at times Elizabeth appears to be dominating over Victor, he still surpasses and controls her, thus Elizabeth being a victim of a patriarchal world. Throughout the story Shelley suggests that women are victims in a patriarchal world, dominated by men. Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus is an embodiment of Shelleys concern for feminine position and importance in the 18th century patriarchal society. Shelleys approach on women tells us that women are ambiguous and contradictory, lacking power. Shelley reveals the inequality inconspicuously all through the story. Throughout the novel, Mary Shelley suggests that women are victims in a patriarchal world. Caroline Beaufort Frankenstein, Justine Moritz, and Elizabeth Lavenza are victims of a patriarchal world, dominated by men. Men are the reasons why these women were punished. The novel exemplifies the unfairness of women in the 18th century and in the novel.